VIRTUES OF QURBÃNI
Qurbãni is a practice commanded by Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى: So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals). (108:2)
There is nothing dearer to Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى during the days of Qurbãni than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Judgement with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with an open and happy heart. (Tirmizi, Ibne Mãjah)
Zayd Ibn Arqam رضي الله عنه relates that the companions asked, “O, Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم! What is Qurbani?” He replied, “It is the Sunnah of your father Ibraheem.” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (What reward is there for animals with) wool, 0 Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم?” they asked. “A reward”, he said, “for every fibre of the wool.” (lbne Mãjah)
When a person slaughters a Qurbani animal, he is forgiven at the fall of the first drop of blood, and verily, the animal shall be brought forward on the Day of Judgment with its blood, meat etc., and shall be increased in weight seventy times more than its own weight, and thereafter it will be placed on the scale of deeds. (Kanzul ‘Ummãl)
ON WHOM IS QURBÃNI WAJIB?
Qurbãni is wãjib on every Muslim who is of sound mind, mature (who has reached the age of puberty), muqeem (i.e. he is not a Shar’ee traveller), and possesses the amount of fifty two and half tolas of silver (612.36 grammes) or wealth equivalent to that value which is in excess of one’s aslee (basic) needs. It is not necessary that this amount is in one’s possession for a complete lunar year. Its possession during the three days of Qurbãni will make Qurbãni obligatory. Qurbani is not incumbent on a child or an insane person whether they own wealth equivalent to the amount above or not, nor is it wãjib upon their guardians to perform it on their behalf. Similarly, it is not wãjib on a shar’ee traveller.
NOTE: A Shar’ee traveller is he who goes on a journey with the intention of travelling forty- eight miles. He will be treated as a traveller as soon as he goes out of his town.
It is highly virtuous for one on whom Qurbãni is not wãjib to offer sacrifice for the pleasure of Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى. He will be eligible for all the reward mentioned in the Ahãdeeth.
During the days of Qurbãni, sadaqah and charity cannot compensate for Qurbãni nor fulfil the wãjib. Qurbãni is a unique ‘ibãdah. Just as Zakah cannot compensate for Hajj, or Sawm (fasting) cannot compensate for Salãh, similarly, a charity cannot compensate for Qurbãni. However, if the days of Qurbãni had passed, and the Qurbãni was not offered due to not knowing, negligence or for some other valid reason, then it becomes wãjib to give in sadaqah the price of Qurbãni animal or the animal itself to the poor.
If a traveller returned home or a person acquired the required wealth on the 12th of Zul Hijjah before sunset, it will be wãjib upon him to perform Qurbãni.
A traveller who makes an intention of staying at a certain place for fifteen days or more no longer remains a traveller. He must offer Qur- bãni if he possesses the prescribed amount.
DAYS OF QURBÃNI
The days of Qurbãni are tenth, eleventh and twelfth of Zul Hijjah. The first day is better than the second, and the second better than the last.
TIMES FOR QURBÃNI
In town and cities where Jumu’ah and ‘Eed is performed, Qurbãni is not permissible before the ‘Eed Salah. If the Qurbãni has been offered before the ‘Eed Salah, it will have to be repeated. Therefore, the time for Qurbãni commences after ‘Eed Salah on 10th Zul Hijjah until before sunset of 12th Zul Hijjah.
It is permissible, but not preferable to perform Qurbãni at night.
THE QURBÃNI ANIMAL
- It is permissible to offer in sacrifice a goat or she-goat, sheep of all kinds, cow, bull, buffalo or camel.
- It is necessary that the goat is one (full) year old, whether male or female. A cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years. Animals that are younger will not be suitable for Qur- bãni.
- A sheep (of any kind) not less than six months old, so strong and fat that it appears to be one-year-old will suffice for Qurbãni, otherwise, it will have to be one (full) year old.
- A cow, bull, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons provided no one’s share is less than one seventh and the niyyah (intention) of all partners is to attain thawãb (for Qurbãni), and not merely to obtain meat.
- The Qurbãni of only one person can be performed from a goat, sheep or
- If an animal seller says that the animal has reached the required age, and outwardly there is no sign to disprove it, then it is permissible to rely on his
- Animals that are castrated can be used for Qurbani. In fact, this type of animal is preferable.
THE FOLLOWING CANNOT BE USED FOR QURBANI:
- Animals that are blind, one-eyed or has lost one-third or more of its eyesight.
- Animals that have lost a third of the ear or the tail. Similarly, the animal which has no ear from its very birth.
- Animal whose horn has been broken off from the root.
- Animal which has one-leg lame to the extent that it walks on three legs only and is unable to use the fourth leg.
- Animal so lean and thin that its bones have no marrow.
- Animal so weak that it cannot walk to the place of slaughtering on its
- Animal completely toothless or one that has lost most of its teeth.
- It is virtuous to purchase the animal for Qur- bãni a few days prior to slaughtering and care must be taken in feeding and nursing it.
MASNOON METHOD OF SACRIFICE
It is more virtuous to slaughter the animal with one’s own hands. If one does not know how to slaughter, it is preferred that he remain present while someone else is sacrificing the animal. It is not necessary to make the niyyah (intention) of Qurbãni with the tongue, however, it is necessary to say Bismillahi Allahu Akbar when slaughtering.
- Use a sharp knife and slaughter the animal quickly so that it does not
- Do not sharpen the knife in front of the animal.
- After slaughtering, do not skin the animal before it becomes completely cold.
- Do not slaughter one animal in the presence of another.
It is mustahãb (desirable) for one who intends to perform Qurbãni to refrain from cutting hair or clipping nails from 1si Zul Hijjah to 10lh Zul Hijjah, (i.e. until after Qurbãni).
THE QURBÃNI MEAT AND SKIN
- It is permissible to eat the Qurbãni meat. It can also be distributed to relatives and friends whether wealthy or poor, Muslims or non-Muslims. It is better to divide it into three parts. One for the family, one for relatives and friends and one for the poor and needy.
- The skin of the Qurbãni animal can be kept for personal use, e.g. using it as a prayer-mat, water bag etc.
- If the skin of the Qurbãni animal is sold then it is wãjib to give the amount in sadaqah to the poor (i.e. those who are eligible for Zakãh).
- It is not permissible to give meat, fat, etc. of the sacrificed animal to the butcher as his wages,
- The meat of the animal slaughtered by partners should be shared by weight and not by estimation.
- The rope, cover, etc. of the animal should be given away as sadaqah.
QURBÃNI ON BEHALF OF THE DECEASED
If one has been favoured by Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى with wealth, then he should also perform Qurbãni on behalf of Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم, his Sahabah, his Ummah, the Prophets u and for his own living or deceased relatives, friends, and teachers who have conveyed Deeni knowledge.
One should always remember and never over- look our beloved Prophet s and perform Qurbãni on his behalf. Aboo Talhah t has related that the Prophet s sacrificed one ram and while sacrificing the other he said, “This is on behalf of every one of my Ummah who believed in me and testified (to my Prophethood).” (Tabrãni)
It is a matter for deep thought and consideration that the prophet s kept his Ummah in his mind while offering the sacrifice and it is deplorable for the Ummah not to remember him at the time of Qurbãni.